Abstract : The main purpose of this work was to analyze how the indigenous theme is represented in the textbooks of History, in both years 4th and 5th of the Primary Education, which are transmitted in public schools of Foz do Iguaçu (PR, Brazil). Being one of the instruments most used by teachers in teaching-learning processes, the textbook plays a crucial role in the collective imaginary, which reproduces certain ideologies, values, and beliefs about social groups. Its developed a historical-anthropological discussion that allows us to understand the way how Guarani indigenous peoples were treated and represented in that region by non-indigenous people, in order to detail and contextualize this ethnographic exercise. Based on this analytical support, the textbooks are interpellated and a counterpoint of their contents and regional history is established. The body of analysis is constituted by four textbooks which are approved by the Programa Nacional do Livro Didático - PNLD and a book produced locally. This exercise seeks to investigate whether if Law 11.645 of 2008, which mandates the teaching of Afro-Brazilian and indigenous history and culture in brazilian schools, is being addressed and how this is occurring in the escolar materials.