50 Sprague-Dawley rats were used to study the effect of allopurinol and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. They underwent left renal ischemia for 1 h and reperfusion. A right nephrectomy was performed, and 5 groups were made. Group AP received allopurinol 50 mg/kg and PGE1 20 micrograms/kg; group A, allopurinol; group P, PGE1; group C, control, and group S, sham group. Five animals from each group were used to study renal functions and 5 for renal histology. The serum creatinine values were lower in the treatment groups compared to the controls on days 1-3 and 7 (p < 0.05). The blood urea nitrogen values showed a similar trend. Maximum histological damage was seen in group C, followed by groups A, P and AP, in this order. We conclude that allopurinol and PGE1 attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.