In the period of sugarcane field reform, soil tillage for planting is generally carried out in total area in order to promote a better root system development. However, this agricultural practice causes changes in soil structure due to the traffic of agricultural machinery from soil tillage to harvesting, which may compromise growth and productivity of sugarcane. The aim of this study was to: i – assess the growth and productivity of sugarcane stalks cultivated in an Oxisol and Ultisol undergoing chiseling in the planting row and in the total area; and ii) assess the effects of the chiseling site on soil physical attributes and their relation with stalk productivity and sugarcane quality six months after planting in an Oxisol and Ultisol. The experimental design was a large paired-plot design with treatments consisting of chiseling in the planting row (CPR) and chiseling in total area (CTA) in an Oxisol and Ultisol located in Guariba and Monte Alto, respectively. In order to meet the first objective, the number of tillers, number of green and dead leaves per plant, leaf area, leaf area index, plant height, and dry matter of stems, leaves, pointer, and total were measured in six assessments during the crop cycle. The Ultisol undergoing CPR interfered with crop tillering, presenting the lowest number of tillers at 115 DAP when approximately 1519 degree-days were accumulated when compared to the same soil undergoing CTA. Soil tillage with chiseling in the planting row may be replaced by the tillage with chiseling in total area since growth and productivity of sugarcane stalks were similar regardless of the site of the chiseling operation. To meet the second objective, the soil attributes sand, silt, and clay contents, soil penetration resistance (PR), soil bulk density (Ds), total porosity (Pt), macroporosity (MaP), and microporosity (MiP), as well as the plant attributes stalk productivity and total recoverable sugar (TRS), were determined six months after planting. From the obtained dataset, a multivariate factor analysis was performed with factor extraction by the principal components analysis method. The first factor (Factor 1) was composed by the attributes microporosity (MiP), clay, and sand. The attributes soil penetration resistance (PR), soil density (Ds), and macroporosity (MaP) were responsible for composing the second factor (Factor 2). Soil tillage with chiseling in the planting row may be replaced by the tillage with chiseling in total area since stalk productivity and the total recoverable sugar of sugarcane were similar regardless of the chiseling operation site, with similar physical conditions for both studied soils.