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Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates autophagy/mitophagy and improves mitochondrial function in chronic heart failure

Authors
  • Raffa, Salvatore
  • Forte, Maurizio
  • Gallo, Giovanna
  • Ranieri, Danilo
  • Marchitti, Simona
  • Magrì, Damiano
  • Testa, Marco
  • Stanzione, Rosita
  • Bianchi, Franca
  • Cotugno, Maria
  • Fiori, Emiliano
  • Visco, Vincenzo
  • Sciarretta, Sebastiano
  • Volpe, Massimo
  • Rubattu, Speranza
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Apr 26, 2023
Volume
80
Issue
5
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s00018-023-04777-w
PMID: 37099206
PMCID: PMC10133375
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Original Article
License
Unknown

Abstract

Mitochondrial dysfunction, causing increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, is a molecular feature of heart failure (HF). A defective antioxidant response and mitophagic flux were reported in circulating leucocytes of patients with chronic HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) exerts many cardiac beneficial effects, including the ability to protect cardiomyocytes by promoting autophagy. We tested the impact of ANP on autophagy/mitophagy, altered mitochondrial structure and function and increased oxidative stress in HFrEF patients by both ex vivo and in vivo approaches. The ex vivo study included thirteen HFrEF patients whose peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and treated with αANP (10–11 M) for 4 h. The in vivo study included six HFrEF patients who received sacubitril/valsartan for two months. PBMCs were characterized before and after treatment. Both approaches analyzed mitochondrial structure and functionality. We found that levels of αANP increased upon sacubitril/valsartan, whereas levels of NT-proBNP decreased. Both the ex vivo direct exposure to αANP and the higher αANP level upon in vivo treatment with sacubitril/valsartan caused: (i) improvement of mitochondrial membrane potential; (ii) stimulation of the autophagic process; (iii) significant reduction of mitochondrial mass—index of mitophagy stimulation—and upregulation of mitophagy-related genes; (iv) reduction of mitochondrial damage with increased inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM)/outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) index and reduced ROS generation. Herein we demonstrate that αANP stimulates both autophagy and mitophagy responses, counteracts mitochondrial dysfunction, and damages ultimately reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress generation in PBMCs from chronic HF patients. These properties were confirmed upon sacubitril/valsartan administration, a pivotal drug in HFrEF treatment.

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