Atractylodis Rhizoma (AR), mainly includes Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC. (A. lancea) and Atractylodes chinensis (DC.) Koidz. (A. chinensis) is widely used in East Asia as a diuretic and stomachic drug, for the treatment of rheumatic diseases, digestive disorders, night blindness, and influenza as it contains a variety of sesquiterpenoids and other components of medicinal importance. A systematic summary on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and quality control of AR was presented to explore the future therapeutic potential and scientific potential of this plant. A review of the literature was performed by consulting scientific databases including Google Scholar, Web of Science, Baidu Scholar, Springer, PubMed, ScienceDirect, CNKI, etc. Plant taxonomy was confirmed to the database "The Plant List". Over 200 chemical compounds have been isolated from AR, notably sesquiterpenoids and alkynes. Various pharmacological activities have been demonstrated, especially improving gastrointestinal function and thus allowed to assert most of the traditional uses of AR. The researches on AR are extensive, but gaps still remain. The molecular mechanism, structure-activity relationship, potential synergistic and antagonistic effects of these components need to be further elucidated. It is suggested that further studies should be carried out in the aspects of comprehensive evaluation of the quality of medicinal materials, understanding of the "effective forms" and "additive effects" of the pharmacodynamic substances based on the same pharmacophore of TCM, and its long-term toxicity in vivo and clinical efficacy. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.