Recalcitrant AKC may be a blinding condition. Understanding the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and AKC has already influenced therapy and is essential to the development of future immunomodulatory treatments. The successful management of AKC requires the use of topical cromones, antihistamines and calcineurin inhibitors. Severely affected patients also require systemic immunosuppressive therapy. The current challenge is to find more specific topical and systemic immunomodulatory therapies with a better side-effect profile.