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Atom column detection from simultaneously acquired ABF and ADF STEM images.

Authors
  • Fatermans, J1
  • den Dekker, A J2
  • Müller-Caspary, K3
  • Gauquelin, N4
  • Verbeeck, J4
  • Van Aert, S5
  • 1 Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium; NANOlab Center of Excellence, University of Antwerp, Belgium; imec-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. , (Belgium)
  • 2 imec-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. , (Belgium)
  • 3 Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 4 Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium; NANOlab Center of Excellence, University of Antwerp, Belgium. , (Belgium)
  • 5 Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium; NANOlab Center of Excellence, University of Antwerp, Belgium. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Belgium)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Ultramicroscopy
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2020
Volume
219
Pages
113046–113046
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2020.113046
PMID: 32927326
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

In electron microscopy, the maximum a posteriori (MAP) probability rule has been introduced as a tool to determine the most probable atomic structure from high-resolution annular dark-field (ADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images exhibiting low contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Besides ADF imaging, STEM can also be applied in the annular bright-field (ABF) regime. The ABF STEM mode allows to directly visualize light-element atomic columns in the presence of heavy columns. Typically, light-element nanomaterials are sensitive to the electron beam, limiting the incoming electron dose in order to avoid beam damage and leading to images exhibiting low CNR. Therefore, it is of interest to apply the MAP probability rule not only to ADF STEM images, but to ABF STEM images as well. In this work, the methodology of the MAP rule, which combines statistical parameter estimation theory and model-order selection, is extended to be applied to simultaneously acquired ABF and ADF STEM images. For this, an extension of the commonly used parametric models in STEM is proposed. Hereby, the effect of specimen tilt has been taken into account, since small tilts from the crystal zone axis affect, especially, ABF STEM intensities. Using simulations as well as experimental data, it is shown that the proposed methodology can be successfully used to detect light elements in the presence of heavy elements. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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