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Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis as a cause for hypertension in an adolescent patient

Authors
  • Webb, Tennille N.1
  • Ramratnam, Mohun2
  • Evans, Rhobert W.3
  • Orchard, Trevor3
  • Pacella, John2
  • Erkan, Elif1, 4
  • 1 Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pediatric Nephrology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA , Pittsburgh (United States)
  • 2 University of Pittsburgh, Heart and Vascular Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA , Pittsburgh (United States)
  • 3 University of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology (Nutrition Lipid Program), Pittsburgh, PA, USA , Pittsburgh (United States)
  • 4 Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, 3333 Burnett Avenue, Cincinnati, OH, 45229, USA , Cincinnati (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Pediatric Nephrology
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Feb 16, 2014
Volume
29
Issue
8
Pages
1457–1460
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s00467-014-2774-y
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

BackgroundAtherosclerosis causing renal artery stenosis (RAS) is one of the most common secondary causes of hypertension in adults, but is rare in children.Case-diagnosis/treatmentRAS associated with coronary artery stenosis was diagnosed in a teenage patient who presented with intermittent chest pain and elevated blood pressures for 6 years. The diagnosis of RAS was suspected after physical examination revealed an abdominal bruit. Renal ultrasound with Doppler revealed normal appearing kidneys with high velocity in the aorta and renal arteries. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the chest and abdomen demonstrated generalized calcified atherosclerotic narrowing of the arteries including the renal, celiac, superior mesenteric and coronary arteries in the setting of hyperlipidemia. The lipid panel revealed hypercholesterolemia with elevated serum plant sterol concentrations, suggesting the diagnosis of sitosterolemia. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated left anterior descending artery and left circumflex artery stenosis, which required bypass of the left anterior descending artery and stenting of the left circumflex artery. Aggressive lipid control was recommended and he was treated medically with a beta-blocker, low-dose angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, aspirin, statin, and clopidogrel.ConclusionAlthough very rare, generalized atherosclerosis caused by genetic disorders should be considered an underlying cause for severe hypertension in children with hyperlipidemia.

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