Cocaine use can be responsible for many respiratory complications including asthma. Systematic literature review of data on asthma in cocaine users. PubMed/Medline search, on the period 1980-2017 with the following keywords: "asthma*" or "bronchospasm" and "cocaine" or "freebase*" or "crack", limits "title/abstract"; the selected languages were English or French. Among 108 articles, 43 abstracts underwent dual reading to select 22 studies. In four case reports of asthma associated with cocaine use including 11 patients (mean age: 28.3 years [22-33 years]; sex-ratio: 2.5 [males: 71.5%]), cocaine was sniffed [snorted] (9%), smoked (36.5%) or both sniffed and smoked (54.5%). A medical history of childhood asthma was observed in 45.4% of the cases. Acute respiratory failure, requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, was observed in 45.4% of the cases. Outcome was rapidly favorable in 82%; 9/11, progressively favorable in one patient, and fatal in another patient. Other studies included 6 cross-sectional studies, 4 case-control studies and 8 longitudinal studies (7 retrospective studies and one prospective study). The mean age was 36.6 years (women: 44.7%). Twenty percent of the subjects used cocaine exclusively, and 80% used cocaine combined with other addictive drugs (cocaine and heroin: 62%). The prevalence of cocaine users was higher in asthmatic subjects and the prevalence of asthma was higher in cocaine users. Cocaine use can be responsible for asthma onset and acute asthma exacerbation. In the case of asthma exacerbation, cocaine users were more likely to be admitted in intensive care units and to require intubation and invasive ventilation. Asthma exacerbations may be fatal in spite of resuscitation measures. Asthma treatment observance was lower in cocaine users. Cocaine use may be responsible for asthma onset, acute asthma exacerbations (which may require intubation and invasive ventilation) or death related to asthma. Cocaine use must be systematically considered in the case of asthma exacerbation and practitioners must help cocaine users to stop their consumption. Copyright © 2019 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.