The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequencies, which differ among various ethnic populations, may result in population-specific effects on HIV-1 disease progression. No large-scale study has yet been conducted on the Chinese population. In this study, HLA class I antigen specificities were determined in a cohort including 105 long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) and 321 typical progressors (TPs), who were recruited from HIV-1-infected Northern Han Chinese, to determine the associations between certain HLA types and HIV-1 disease progression. The frequencies of HLA class I specificities and haplotypes among the two groups were compared using binary logistic stepwise regression. Results showed that HLA-A(∗)30-B(∗)13-C(∗)06 (OR = 0.387, P = 0.019) and B(∗)67 (OR = 0.134, P = 0.005) were associated with a long-term non-progressing condition, and C(∗)01 (OR = 2.539, P = 0.050) was overrepresented in TPs after adjusting for non-genetic factors (sex, age, the location of patients, HIV subtype and the route of infection). The influence of HLA homozygosity on HIV disease progression was also analyzed. However, homozygosity at HLA-A, HLA-B or HLA-C conferred no observable disadvantage in our study population (P = 0.730, 0.246 and 0.445, respectively). These findings suggest that the host's genetics make important contributions to HIV viral control and may help to develop peptide-based vaccines for this population. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.