Recently, several autoimmune neurological diseases have been defined by the presence of autoantibodies against different antigens of the nervous system. These autoantibodies have been demonstrated to be specific and useful biomarkers, and most of them are also pathogenic. These aspects have increased the value of autoantibodies in neurological practice, as they enable to establish more accurate diagnosis and to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the autoimmune neurological diseases when they are compared to those lacking them. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms leading to the autoimmune response are still obscure. Genetic predisposition is likely to play a role in autoimmunity, HLA being the most reported genetic factor. Herein, we review the current knowledge about associations between HLA and autoimmune neurological diseases with autoantibodies. We report the main alleles and haplotypes, and discuss the clinical and pathogenic implications of these findings.