BackgroundCross-sectional studies have reported that insulin resistance (IR) is associated with arterial stiffness. However, the relationship between IR and arterial stiffness progression remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the association of triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio with arterial stiffness progression in a non-normotensive population.MethodsA total of 1895 prehypertensive (systolic pressure 120–139 mmHg or diastolic pressure 80–90 mmHg) or hypertensive (systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg or using antihypertensive medication) participants were enrolled in 2013 and 2014, and followed until December 31, 2019. Arterial stiffness progression was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) change (absolute difference between baseline and last follow-up), baPWV change rate (change divided by following years), and baPWV slope (regression slope between examination year and baPWV).ResultsDuring a median follow-up of 4.71 years, we observed an increasing trend of baPWV in the population. There were linear and positive associations of the TyG index and TG/HDL-C ratio with the three baPWV parameters. The difference (95% CI) in baPWV change (cm/s) comparing participants in the highest quartile versus the lowest of TyG index and TG/HDL-C ratio were 129.5 (58.7–200.0) and 133.4 (52.0–214.9), respectively. Similarly, the evaluated baPWV change rates (cm/s/year) were 37.6 (15.3–60.0) and 43.5 (17.8–69.2), while the slopes of baPWV were 30.6 (9.3–51.8) and 33.5 (9.0–58.0). The observed association was stronger in the hypertensive population.ConclusionOur study indicates that the TyG index and TG/HDL-C ratio are significantly associated with arterial stiffness progression in hypertensive population, not in prehypertensive population.