The incidence of obesity in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. Previous research has shown several medications exert noticeable effects on body-weight regulation. Histamine-1 (H1) receptor blockers commonly used to alleviate allergy symptoms are known to report weight gain as a possible side effect. Therefore, we investigated the association between prescription H1 antihistamine use and obesity in adults using data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Adults taking prescription H1 antihistamines were matched by age and gender with controls and compared on the basis of body measurements, plasma glucose, insulin concentrations, and lipid levels. Prescription H1 antihistamine users had a significantly higher weight, waist circumference, and insulin concentration than matched controls. The odds ratio (OR) for being overweight was increased in prescription H1 antihistamine users. H1 antihistamine use may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adults given these medications are also commonly used as over-the-counter remedies.