To evaluate the relationship between neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) with in-hospital mortality in type A acute aortic dissection (AAD). A total of 96 patients who presented to the emergency department between January 2013 and June 2018 with a diagnosis of type A AAD were enrolled in this study. White blood cell count subtypes such as NLR and PLR were calculated at the time of admission. The end point was in-hospital mortality. Of the 96 type A AAD patients included in this analysis, 17 patients (17.7%) died during hospitalization. NLR and PLR were significantly elevated in patients with type A AAD (P<0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve, the best NLR cut-off value to predict in-hospital mortality was 9.74, with 70.6% sensitivity and 76.8% specificity, whereas the best PLR cut-off value was 195.8, with 76.5% sensitivity and 78.1% specificity. Admission NLR and PLR levels were important risk factors and independently associated with in-hospital mortality of type A AAD patients.