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Association of Alzheimer's disease and Chlamydophila pneumoniae.

Authors
  • Stallings, Tiffany L1
  • 1 Rollins School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, 4th Floor, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. [email protected]
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of infection
Publication Date
June 2008
Volume
56
Issue
6
Pages
423–431
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2008.03.013
PMID: 18474399
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

This paper critically reviews the association of infection by Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aging population has increased interest in finding the cause of AD, but studies have yielded contradictory results that are likely due to varying diagnostic tools and different uses of diagnostic tests. Knowledge of AD's characteristics, risk factors, and hypothesized etiologies has expanded since Alois Alzheimer's initial description of AD. Epidemiologic and projection studies provide incidence estimates of AD through a two-stage method: (1) primary diagnosis of dementia by cognitive testing such as Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and (2) clinical diagnosis of AD through criteria such as National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA). Cross-sectional studies yield prevalence estimates of infection by C. pneumoniae by detecting immunoglobulins through laboratory tests such as microimmunofluorescence (MIF). Studies examining the association of C. pneumoniae and AD are limited, but brain autopsy provides information about presence, proximity to areas associated with AD, and bacterial load. Standardization of diagnostic techniques would allow for better comparability of studies, but uncertainty about the best method of diagnosis of infection by C. pneumoniae and AD may call for revised or novel diagnostic tools.

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