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Association of Dysplastic Coronoid Process with Long-Face Morphology.

  • Chen, T1, 2, 3
  • Liu, Z1, 2, 4
  • Xue, C1, 3
  • Tian, W1, 4
  • Bai, D1, 3
  • Chen, Y P2
  • 1 State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Disease, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. , (China)
  • 2 Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.
  • 3 Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. , (China)
  • 4 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. , (China)
Published Article
Journal of dental research
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2020
DOI: 10.1177/0022034519892551
PMID: 31826728


Vertical malocclusion is a developmental condition, resulting from complex interactions among multiple etiological factors during the growth period. As a tricky dentofacial deformity clinically, long-face (LF) morphology is characterized by excessive vertical facial growth with severe disarrangement of jaws and teeth. Since the improvement of LF patients on facial profile and occlusion is often difficult and lacks long-term stability, it becomes important to unravel the etiology of LF pattern formation for early prevention and treatment. In the current studies, we identified a transgenic mouse model that exhibited a dysplastic coronoid process and LF morphology. Although the mutant mice exhibited jaw structures and occlusion comparable to controls at birth, they all acquired typical LF morphology with anterior open bite during postnatal growth, resembling clinical features of the selected skeletal class III patients. Since the coronoid process provides an insertion site for the temporalis attachment, we examined the initial development and differentiation of the temporalis and found identical results in both control and mutant mice before E17.5 when the temporal muscle makes attachment to the coronoid process. However, thereafter, we observed altered orientation and reduced size of the cross-sectional area of the temporalis in mutant mice, which persisted to the weaning stage. Biomechanical analysis and simulation modeling further support the idea that altered morphology of the coronoid process may impair the efficiency of the vertical temporalis contraction and appears to correlate with LF formation. Consistently, we present evidence that a dysplastic mandibular coronoid process was also seen in some human patients with skeletal III LF morphology. Taken together, the results presented in this study establish an association of the craniofacial bony structures with vertical patterning, which will have implications in earlier prediction for clinical precaution and intervention.

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