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Association between urinary sodium levels and iodine status in Korea.

Authors
  • Ahn, Jonghwa1
  • Lee, Jang Ho1
  • Lee, Jiwoo1
  • Baek, Ji Yeon1
  • Song, Eyun1
  • Oh, Hye-Seon1
  • Kim, Mijin1
  • Park, Suyeon1
  • Jeon, Min Ji1
  • Kim, Tae Yong1
  • Kim, Won Bae1
  • Shong, Young Kee1
  • Kim, Won Gu1
  • 1 Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. , (North Korea)
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Korean journal of internal medicine
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2020
Volume
35
Issue
2
Pages
392–399
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3904/kjim.2017.375
PMID: 29768912
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

To evaluate the association between the urinary sodium concentration and iodine status in different age groups in Korea. This nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (VI 2-3, 2014 to 2015). We included 3,645 subjects aged 10 to 75 years with normal kidney function and without a history of thyroid disease. Adequate iodine intake was defined as a urinary iodine/creatinine (I/Cr) ratio of 85 to 220 µg/g. The urinary sodium/ creatinine (Na/Cr) ratios were classified as low (< 47 mmol/g), intermediate (47 to 114 mmol/g), or high (> 114 mmol/g). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 292 µg/L (interquartile range [IQR], 157 to 672), and the median urinary I/Cr ratio was 195 µg/g (IQR, 104 to 478). Iodine deficiency (< 100 µg/L) and iodine excess (> 300 µg/L) were observed in 11.3% and 49.0% of subjects, respectively. The UIC was significantly associated with the urinary sodium concentration, and the urinary I/Cr ratio was significantly correlated with the urinary Na/Cr ratio (both p < 0.001). The distributions of UIC, urinary I/Cr ratio, and Na/Cr ratio varied among age groups. Low urinary I/Cr and Na/Cr ratios were most common in young adults (age, 19 to 29 years), while high urinary I/Cr and Na/Cr ratios were most common in elderly people (age, 60 to 75 years). Iodine intake was significantly associated with sodium intake in the Korean population. Our study suggested that an adequately low salt intake might be helpful for preventing iodine excess in Korea.

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