Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are documented to share common transmission routes including fecal-oral. This study examined the association between seropositivity of antibodies against H. pylori (anti-HP) and HAV (anti-HAV) via a community-based survey of 40 randomly selected kindergartens in 10 urban and 10 rural areas. Serum samples from 2,047 healthy preschool children and 104 teachers were screened for anti-HP by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and for anti-HAV by microparticle enzyme immunoassay. In children, a low prevalence of anti-HAV (0.44%) was found, in contrast to a high prevalence in their teachers (78.8%); anti-HP seroprevalence was 6.4% for children and 30.8% for teachers. Anti-HAV and anti-HP seropositivities were significantly associated in teachers after adjustment for age, sex, and residential area through multiple logistic regression analysis (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio = 7.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-36.8, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that HAV and H. pylori may have shared transmission routes in central Taiwan 15 years or more ago, but not any recently.