To analyze photoreceptors' condition after intravitreal ranibizumab treatment according to the pattern of diabetic macular edema (DME) on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Retrospective study includes 58 treatment naïve patients with DME, treated with intravitreal ranibizumab injections and followed up for at least 12 months. Patients were classified based on DME morphology on SD-OCT into: diffuse macular edema, cystoid macular edema (CME) and serous retinal detachment with CME (SRD/CME). The DME morphology was analyzed, while quantitative measurement of ellipsoid zone (EZ) defect, as well as qualitative assessment of the condition of external limiting membrane (ELM) and interdigitation zone (IZ) at foveal area, was taken before and after treatment. Before treatment, patients with CME presented worse ELM and IZ condition and greater EZ defect than patients with diffuse macular edema or SRD/CME. After treatment, the restoration of EZ defect and IZ was more evident in patients with CME than in diffuse macular edema or SRD/CME. Patients with DME presented significant photoreceptors' restoration after intravitreal ranibizumab injections at the 12-month follow-up. The improvement in EZ defect size and IZ was dependent on the pattern of DME on SD-OCT.