MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to have a role in susceptibility and prognosis of various types of human cancer. We investigated the association between polymorphisms in miR-146aG>C, miR-196a2C>T, and miR-499A>G and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk and interaction with HCC and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Two hundred sixty-six cases with HCC and 281 health controls were enrolled in the present study. Genotyping of the miR-146aG>C, miR-196a2C>T, and miR-499A>G genotypes was conducted by duplex polymerase chain reaction with the confronting two-pair primer (PCR-RFLP). Subjects with miR-146a GG and G allele had an increased risk of HCC compared with the homozygote CC genotype. Similarly, HCC patients carrying microRNA (miRNA)-196a2 computed tomography, TT, and T allele significantly decreased the risk of HCC relative to the CC genotype. Stratified analysis indicated that miR-196a2C>T polymorphism was associated with reduced risk of HBV-related HCC, but not in hepatitis C virus- and nonviral-related HCC cases. In conclusion, miR-146aG>C and miR-196a2C>T polymorphism are associated with risk of HCC patients in China, especially in patients with HBV infection. SNPs in miRNA sequences can be used as a diagnostic biomarker for HCC.