Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) affect up to 10% of women during pregnancy and influence child neurodevelopment, including mental and motor function. We assessed whether HDP, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, superimposed preeclampsia, and eclampsia, correlate with motor and mental developmental abnormalities in 3-year-old children, using data obtained between April 2004 and March 2013 through a mandatory population-based health checkup of mothers and children in Kobe city, Japan. The primary outcome was motor and mental developmental abnormalities at 3 years of age; parental-reported questionnaires and physician's medical examinations were evaluated. The association between maternal HDP and child neurodevelopmental abnormality was evaluated using a logistic regression model. Of the 43,854 participating children, 1120 were born to women with HDP and 42,734 were born to women without HDP. The prevalence of motor developmental abnormality was 1.7% in the exposed group and 0.95% in the control group; the prevalence of mental developmental abnormality was 2.41% in the exposed group and 1.22% in the control group. Children born to mothers with HDP did not have an increased risk of motor developmental abnormality at the age of 3 years [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval 0.72-1.91], but had an increased risk of mental developmental abnormality (adjusted OR 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.21-2.69). Maternal HDP were associated with mental development abnormality in 3-year-old children. These findings may be clinically relevant; mental abnormality in children born to women with HDP could be detected during early stages, which would facilitate early intervention.