A balanced nutrient intake is important for patients with diabetes. Even if individuals have the same number of residual natural teeth, there are large differences in the masticatory performance between edentulous sites restored with a fixed dental prosthesis, including dental implants, and those restored with a removable dental prosthesis. This study assessed whether the prevalence and control of diabetes differed based on the use of removable dental prostheses through an analysis of nationally representative data. Overall, 8,155 individuals (3,525 men and 4,630 women) aged ≥ 50 years were included in this study and were classified into the following 3 groups: group 1, did not use any removable dental prostheses (NF); group 2, used removable partial dentures (RPD); and group 3, used removable complete dentures on at least 1 jaw (CD). The characterization of diabetic patients and glycemic control were analyzed and compared among groups. To determine the relationship between diabetes and the use of dental prostheses, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed (P < 0.05). The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for diabetes in men participants in groups NF, RPD, and CD were 1 (reference), 1.165 (0.878-1.544), and 1.491 (1.034-2.151), respectively, after adjusting for confounding factors. Diabetes and glycemic control were significantly associated with the use of removable dental prostheses among men. The use of removable dental prostheses is a potential risk indicator for uncontrolled diabetes in Korean men adults, suggesting the need for a comprehensive approach to minimize the complications of diabetes mellitus. © 2019 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.