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Association between daily sunlight exposure duration and diabetic retinopathy in Korean adults with diabetes: A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study.

Authors
  • Lee, Hye Jun1
  • Kim, Choon Ok2
  • Lee, Duk Chul1
  • 1 Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. , (North Korea)
  • 2 Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Korea. , (North Korea)
Type
Published Article
Journal
PLoS ONE
Publisher
Public Library of Science
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2020
Volume
15
Issue
8
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0237149
PMID: 32764774
Source
Medline
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

To investigate the association between daily sunlight exposure duration and diabetic retinopathy in Korean adults with diabetes. This study used data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Overall, 1,089 patients with diabetes aged >40 years were included. The duration of daily sunlight exposure was assessed via health interviews. Comprehensive ophthalmic evaluations, including standard retinal fundus photography after pupil dilation, were conducted. Diabetic retinopathy was graded using the modified Airlie House Classification. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the association between daily sunlight exposure duration and the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The risk of diabetic retinopathy was 2.66 times higher in the group with ≥5 h of daily sunlight exposure than in the group with less exposure after adjusting for risk factors such as duration of diabetes, serum hemoglobin A1c level, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (P = 0.023). Furthermore, the risk of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy was 3.13 times higher in the group with ≥5 h of daily sunlight exposure than in the group with less exposure (P = 0.009). In patients with diabetes for <10 years, the risks of diabetic retinopathy and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy were 4.26 and 4.82 times higher in the group with ≥5 h of daily sunlight exposure than the group with less exposure, respectively (P < 0.05). This study revealed that sunlight exposure for ≥5 h a day was significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetic retinopathy and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in Korean patients with diabetes. The risks were significantly higher in patients with diabetes for <10 years. Therefore, reducing daily sunlight exposure could be an early preventive strategy against diabetic retinopathy in people with diabetes.

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