Coexistence of colorectal neoplasia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has been reported. Subclinical atherosclerosis can be evaluated noninvasively and easily by assessing carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid plaque using ultrasonography. We aimed to evaluate the association between carotid ultrasonography findings and colorectal conventional adenoma (AD) in health checkup examinees. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of health checkup examinees ≥ 40 years old who had undergone both carotid ultrasonography and colonoscopies at a single hospital between January 2012 and December 2016. The median age of 4871 eligible participants was 54 years (range, 40-89). AD was found in 2009 individuals (41.2%), with a mean number of 1.9 ± 1.7 lesions. Abnormal CIMT (≥ 1 mm) and carotid plaque were found in 1366 (28.0%) and 1255 (25.8%) individuals, respectively. AD and high-risk adenoma (HRA) were observed more frequently in those with abnormal CIMT or plaque. Moreover, abnormal CIMT and plaque were independent risk factors for the presence of AD (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.39, P = 0.006; OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.08-1.43, P = 0.002) and HRA (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05-1.52, P = 0.034; OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.10-1.65, P = 0.004), respectively. Abnormal CIMT and the presence of carotid plaque were significantly associated with AD and HRA, and each was an independent risk factor for AD and HRA. More careful observation might be needed during colonoscopies in individuals with abnormal carotid ultrasonographic findings.