Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) can be regarded as a rare opportunistic infection in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We report the case of a 20-year-old woman treated for ALL. During maintenance treatment, the patient presents with pallor, prolonged fever and asthenia. The examination objective splenomegaly and blood counts showed pancytopenia. The bone marrow aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of VL. The patient was treated with antimoniate of meglumine with good evolution.