The etiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is unclear and its pathogenesis is controversial. Because previous reports have inconsistently noted the type and frequency of malformations associated with CDH, we assessed these associated malformations ascertained between 1979 and 2003 in 334,262 consecutive births. Of the 115 patients with the most common type of CDH, the posterolateral, or Bochdalek-type hernia, 70 (60.8%) had associated malformations. These included: chromosomal abnormalities (n = 21, 30.0%); non-chromosomal syndromes (Fryns syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, De Lange syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, Fraser syndrome, Goldenhar syndrome, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, multiple pterygium syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and spondylocostal dysostosis); malformation sequences (laterality sequence, ectopia cordis); malformation complexes (limb body wall complex) and non syndromic multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) (n = 30, 42.9%). Malformations of the cardiovascular system (n = 42, 27.5%), urogenital system (n = 27, 17.7%), musculoskeletal system (n = 24, 15.7%), and central nervous system (n = 15, 9.8%) were the most common other congenital malformations. We observed specific patterns of malformations associated with CDH which emphasizes the need to evaluate all patients with CDH for possible associated malformations. Geneticists and pediatricians should be aware that the malformations associated with CDH can often be classified into a recognizable malformation syndrome or pattern (57.1%).