Chamaeleons are well known for their unique suite of morphological adaptations. Whereas most chamaeleons are arboreal and have long tails, which are used during arboreal acrobatic manoeuvres, Malagasy dwarf chamaeleons (Brookesia) are small terrestrial lizards with relatively short tails. Like other chamaeleons, Brookesia have grasping feet and use these to hold on to narrow substrates. However, in contrast to other chamaeleons, Brookesia place the tail on the substrate when walking on broad substrates, thus improving stability. Using three-dimensional synchrotron X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we demonstrate a set of unique specializations in the tail associated with the use of the tail during locomotion. Additionally, our imaging demonstrates specializations of the inner ear that may allow these animals to detect small accelerations typical of their slow, terrestrial mode of locomotion. These data suggest that the evolution of a terrestrial lifestyle in Brookesia has gone hand-in-hand with the evolution of a unique mode of locomotion and a suite of morphological adaptations allowing for stable locomotion on a wide array of substrates.