The scientific concept of health assessment and prediction in a piloted mission to Mars has been built on the principles of pre-nosologic diagnostics, i.e., identification of the norm-pathology borderline states. The article deals with the medical care policy for the mission, and specific techniques and technologies. A three-level system of health assessment and prediction is proposed. Innovative approaches to evaluation of the body control systems during long exposure in microgravity have a footing of ground-based and space experimental investigations. Namely, these include evaluation of the cardiorespiration autonomous regulation and body functional reserve assessment by noninvasive recording of physiological signals in sleeping crewmembers before and after mission.