Camellia oleifera Abel. (C. oleifera) is a cultivable plant with important economic value. It is very helpful for the scientific utilization, cultivation and preservation of germplasm resources through evaluating the genetic diversity. In this study, we estimated the genetic relationship of 150 accessions of C. oleifera using morphological and economic traits, as well as SSR molecular marker. Through the variation and cluster analysis of 17 morphological and economic traits, the germplasm was divided into a candidate core breeding group with higher economic traits and a core breeding group with higher morphological traits. The genetic similarity coefficients of SSR markers ranged from 0.05 to 0.91, and the germplasm materials were divided into five groups. The results demonstrated that C. oleifera germplasms perform a rich genetic variation. This is the first report to evaluate the genetic diversity of different C. oleifera germplasms using the morphological and economic traits, together with SSR molecular marker, and the results allow us to find evidence for the origin of varieties, establish core breeding populations and its fingerprint. Copyright © 2020 by JAPANESE SOCIETY OF BREEDING.