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An assessment of the environmental fate and exposure of benzene and the chlorobenzenes in Canada.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Chemosphere
0045-6535
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
38
Issue
8
Pages
1777–1796
Identifiers
PMID: 10101848
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Systematic modelling of the fate of benzene and the chlorobenzenes is presented which follows a four-stage process of chemical classification, quantifying discharge rates and environmental concentrations, evaluative assessment of fate and regional mass balance modelling has been carried out for the southern Ontario region. The EQC model was applied to determine the principal transport and transformation processes experienced by this group of chemicals, which vary considerably in volatility and hydrophobicity. Observed environmental concentrations are in satisfactory agreement with the predictions of the steady state Level III ChemCAN model of chemical fate. A multiple pathway human exposure model which estimates intake of contaminants by residents of southern Ontario has been developed and applied to these chemicals. A novel method of deducing maximum tolerable environmental concentrations is presented. Results suggest that benzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene are present in the environment at levels sufficient to cause exposures near allowable daily intake (ADI) levels for the general population, but the other substances are present at levels which result in exposure ranging from 1/10 to 1/1000 of the ADI.

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