Polyester (PES) fabrics were pre-treated with atmospheric discharge plasma, and the surface properties, chemical composition, and physical changes on the surfaces of the PES fabrics were investigated. The hydrophobic recovery of the plasma-modified surface during aging of the PES fabrics treated with plasma was also investigated. The glycerin contact angles were determined along with the chemical composition changes in the PES fabric using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and iodometric analyses. The physical changes in the topography and roughness of the plasma-modified PES were studied using scanning electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The relation between the hydrophilicity and hydroperoxide concentration on the surface of the plasma-treated PES fabrics was analyzed and the antibacterial behavior of the fabrics with respect to selected two bacterial strains was monitored.