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Assessment of aflatoxin contamination in dairy animal concentrate feed from Punjab, India.

Authors
  • Patyal, Anil1, 2
  • Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh3
  • Bedi, Jasbir Singh3
  • Aulakh, Rabinder Singh3
  • 1 School of Public Health and Zoonoses, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, 141004, India. [email protected] , (India)
  • 2 Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, College of Veterinary Science and A. H., CGKV, Anjora, Durg, Chhattisgarh, 491001, India. [email protected] , (India)
  • 3 School of Public Health and Zoonoses, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, 141004, India. , (India)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jul 01, 2021
Volume
28
Issue
28
Pages
37705–37715
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-13321-x
PMID: 33723771
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Aflatoxins are one of the major environmental contaminants in animal feed and pose a potential threat to human health due to their secretion in the milk of lactating animals. The present study was conducted with the objectives to determine the occurrence of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) in dairy animal concentrate feed and to evaluate the effect of season, spatial variation, and dairy farm size on the levels of aflatoxins contamination. A total of 189 dairy animal concentrate feed samples were tested for aflatoxins with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as screening and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) as confirmatory techniques. Of the total, 59% feed samples were found positive for aflatoxins, while 44% samples were detected with total aflatoxins levels higher than the tolerance limit established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and 58% samples were found with aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) levels above the European Commission (EC) legal limit. AFB1 levels in dairy animal concentrate feed were found significantly higher during rainy (41.6 μg kg-1) and winter (35.9 μg kg-1) seasons as compared to the summer season (25.5 μg kg-1). The theoretical extrapolation of the AFB1 carry-over from animal feed to milk (aflatoxins M1) in different seasons may lead to 50-100% contamination of milk at levels above the EC tolerance limit. The incidence and levels of aflatoxins especially AFB1 in animal feed, not only pose a direct effect on animals but may also pose a concern for food safety in relation to the occurrence of aflatoxins M1 in milk. Therefore, continuous surveillance of aflatoxins in dairy animal feeds is required to reduce animal and consequently human exposure. © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

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