A one-year survey was carried out to study the aerial prevalence of Aspergillus species and other moulds in the outdoor and indoor environments of Kuwait. Petri plates containing rose-Bengal medium were exposed for 20 minutes twice a month using a six-stage Andersen air sampler at the pre-determined sites. The exposed plates were incubated at 28 degrees C +/- 1 degree C up to 5 days and colonies were enumerated and identified by colonial and microscopic morphology. The data revealed that Aspergillus species were the predominant component (27.7%) of the outdoor aerospora of Kuwait and A. fumigatus alone accounted for 21.3% of the total aspergilli. In contrast, Cladosporium species formed the major component of the indoor aerospora (22.8%), followed by Aspergillus species (20.9%), Penicillium species (14.6%), and Bipolaris species (10.6%). A comparison of the fungi recorded in the outdoor and in the indoor air revealed that Aspergillus, Alternaria and Fusarium were significantly higher in the outdoor environment, whereas Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Bipolaris were significantly higher in the indoor environment. The relative prevalence of Aspergillus species and other moulds in the outdoor and indoor air of Kuwait was as follows: A. fumigatus 5.9 and 9.8%, A. flavus 4.9 and 3.9%, other aspergilli 16.8 and 7.0%, Alternaria species 19.8 and 7.9%, Cladosporium species 13.7 and 22.8%, Penicillium species 7.6 and 14.6%, and other moulds 31.2 and 34.1%, respectively. During the study, 25 different genera were identified, indicating a wide diversity in the spectrum of local fungal aerospora. The study provides useful information on the prevalence of allergenic fungi in the outdoor and indoor environments of Kuwait.