Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane glycoprotein, causes glycogen storage disease type 1a. We have recently shown that human G6Pase contains an odd number of transmembrane segments, supporting a nine-transmembrane helical model for this enzyme. Sequence analysis predicts the presence of three potential asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation sites, N96TS, N203AS, and N276SS, conserved among mammalian G6Pases. According to this model, Asn96, located in a 37-residue luminal loop, is a potential acceptor for oligosaccharides, whereas Asn203 and Asn276, located in a 12-residue cytoplasmic loop and helix 7, respectively, would not be utilized for this purpose. We therefore characterized mutant G6Pases lacking one, two, or all three potential N-linked glycosylation sites. Western blot and in vitro translation studies showed that G6Pase is glycosylated only at Asn96, further validating the nine-transmembrane topology model. Substituting Asn96 with an Ala (N96A) moderately reduced enzymatic activity and had no effect on G6Pase synthesis or degradation, suggesting that oligosaccharide chains do not play a major role in protecting the enzyme from proteolytic degradation. In contrast, mutation of Asn276 to an Ala (N276A) destabilized the enzyme and markedly reduced enzymatic activity. We present additional evidence suggesting that the integrity of transmembrane helices is essential for G6Pase stability and catalytic activity.