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The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) Mediates the Counter-Regulatory Effects of Pelargonidins in Models of Inflammation and Metabolic Dysfunctions

  • biagioli, michele
  • carino, adriana
  • fiorucci, chiara
  • annunziato, giannamaria
  • marchianò, silvia
  • bordoni, martina
  • roselli, rosalinda
  • di giorgio, cristina
  • castiglione, federica
  • ricci, patrizia
  • bruno, agostino
  • faccini, andrea
  • distrutti, eleonora
  • baldoni, monia
  • costantino, gabriele
  • fiorucci, stefano
Publication Date
Aug 07, 2019
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Pelargonidins are anthocyanidins thought to be beneficial for the human health, although controversies exist over the doses needed and the unclear mechanism of action, along with poor systemic bioavailability. One putative target of pelargonidins is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). A synthetic pelargonidin (Mt-P) was synthesized by the methylation of the pelargonidin (the natural compound indicated as P). Mt-P transactivated the AhR with an EC50 of 1.97 &micro / M and was ~2-fold more potent than the natural compound. In vitro Mt-P attenuated pro-inflammatory activities of Raw264.7 macrophage cells in an AhR-dependent manner. In vivo, administration of the Mt-P in Balb/c mice resulted in a dose-dependent attenuation of signs and symptoms of colitis induced by TNBS. A dose of 5 mg/kg Mt-P, but not the natural compound P, reversed intestinal inflammation and increased expression of Tnf-&alpha / , Ifn-ƴ, and Il-6, while promoted the expansion of regulatory T cells and M2 macrophages. In C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), Mt-P attenuated body weight gain, intestinal and liver inflammation, and ameliorated insulin sensitivity, while worsened liver steatosis by up-regulating the liver expression of Cd36 and Apo100b. These effects were abrogated by AhR gene ablation. Mt-P is a synthetic pelargonidin endowed with robust AhR agonist activity that exerts beneficial effects in murine models of inflammation and metabolic dysfunction.

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