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Artificial Intelligence-Based 3D Printing Strategies for Bone Scaffold Fabrication and Its Application in Preclinical and Clinical Investigations.

Authors
  • A, Logeshwaran1
  • Elsen, Renold2
  • Nayak, Sunita1
  • 1 School of Bio Sciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), Katpadi, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632014, India. , (India)
  • 2 School of Mechanical Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), Katpadi, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632014, India. , (India)
Type
Published Article
Journal
ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Publisher
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Publication Date
Feb 12, 2024
Volume
10
Issue
2
Pages
677–696
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.3c01368
PMID: 38252807
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

3D printing has become increasingly popular in the field of bone tissue engineering. However, the mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and porosity of the 3D printed bone scaffolds are major requirements for tissue regeneration and implantation as well. Designing the scaffold architecture in accordance with the need to create better mechanical and biological stimuli is necessary to achieve unique scaffold properties. To accomplish this, different 3D designing strategies can be utilized with the help of the scaffold design library and artificial intelligence (AI). The implementation of AI to assist the 3D printing process can enable it to predict, adapt, and control the parameters on its own, which lowers the risk of errors. This Review emphasizes 3D design and fabrication of bone scaffold using different materials and the use of AI-aided 3D printing strategies. Also, the adaption of AI to 3D printing helps to develop patient-specific scaffolds based on different requirements, thus providing feedback and adequate data for reproducibility, which can be improvised in the future. These printed scaffolds can also serve as an alternative to preclinical animal test models to cut costs and prevent immunological interference.

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