We reviewed 116 patients who underwent 118 arthroscopic ankle arthrodeses. The mean age at operation was 57 years, 2 months (20 to 86 years). The indication for operation was post-traumatic osteoarthritis in 67, primary osteoarthritis in 36, inflammatory arthropathy in 13 and avascular necrosis in two. The mean follow-up was 65 months (18 to 144). Nine patients (10 ankles) died before final review and three were lost to follow-up, leaving 104 patients (105 ankles) who were assessed by a standard telephone interview. The preoperative talocrural deformity was between 22 degrees valgus and 28 degrees varus, 94 cases were within 10 degrees varus/valgus. The mean time to union was 12 weeks (6 to 20). Nonunion occurred in nine cases (7.6%). Other complications included 22 cases requiring removal of a screw for prominence, three superficial infections, two deep vein thromboses/pulmonary emboli, one revision of fixation, one stress fracture and one deep infection. Six patients had a subtalar fusion at a mean of 48 months after ankle fusion. There were 48 patients with excellent, 35 with good, 10 with fair and 11 with poor clinical results.