Clinically available synthetic graft materials frequently fail when used as a small-caliber arterial substitute. Therefore, we developed a new type of graft material, prepared from a mixture of polyurethane and poly-L-lactic acid, to be used as a scaffold for the regeneration of the arterial wall. In this study microporous, compliant, biodegradable polyurethane/poly-L-lactic acid grafts (n = 16) and polytetrafluoroethylene grafts (n = 16) were implanted in the rat abdominal aorta and evaluated 3, 6, and 12 weeks after implantation. First, we evaluated the extent of neoendothelial healing (n = 8) by means of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Next, we studied the ability of the neoendothelial cells to produce prostacyclin (n = 8) by means of bioassay for prostacyclin and radioimmunoassay for its stable hydrolysis product, 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha. There were no significant differences between the two graft types in the amount of prostacyclin production per unit graft area covered with neoendothelium, and this amount was the same as for normal endothelium. However, the polytetrafluoroethylene grafts showed incomplete neoendothelial healing, even after 12 weeks of implantation, in contrast to the polyurethane/poly-L-lactic acid grafts. The better healing characteristics of the polyurethane/poly-L-lactic acid grafts ensured the fast development of a complete neoarterial wall, possessing strength, compliance, and thromboresistance equivalent to normal arterial wall tissue. These results demonstrate that arterial wall tissue regeneration in polyurethane/poly-L-lactic acid grafts may open new perspectives in the field of arterial reconstructive surgery.