To verify the independent role of the arterial baroreceptor dysfunction involved in target-organ damage in hypertension, sinoaortic denervated (SAD) rats were used as a model of arterial baroreflex (ABR) deficit. SAD, isolated aortic-denervated (AD), and isolated sinus-denervated (SD) rats were instrumented to record blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), BP variability (BPV), HR variability (HRV), ABR function control of heart period (ABR-HP), and BP (ABR-BP). Vascular maximum contractile/relaxant function was determined and organ damage was estimated by observation of morphologic changes. Short-term (postoperative 1 week) SAD caused hypertension and tachycardia in rats. Eighteen weeks after operation, BP and HR values in SAD and SD rats were not different from those in sham-operated rats, but AD rats were hypertensive compared with control group. Although 24-h mean BP values of long-term SAD rats were not different from those of sham-operated rats, 24-h BPV of SAD rats was significantly higher than that of sham-operated rats. Arterial baroreflex function in short-term SAD rats was significantly less than in sham-operated rats, whereas in long-term SAD rats, ABR-HP and ABR-BP were higher than those in short-term SAD rats, but were still significantly lower than those in control groups. At postoperative 18 weeks, baroreflex function in SAD and AD rats was significantly less than function in SD and control groups. SBPmax after phenylephrine and DBPmin after nitroprusside were significantly higher in SAD, AD, and SD rats than in control rats. Baroreflex function was negatively correlated to DBPmin and SBPmax in all denervated rats (n = 44). Some morphologic changes were found 18 weeks after denervation in heart, kidney, and small artery in SAD, AD, and SD rats. Baroreflex function in all denervated rats was negatively related to 24-h BPV values. In contrast, 24-h BPV values in SAD, AD, and SD rats were positively related to organ-damage score. A negative correlation between ABR function and end-organ damage score was found. Arterial baroreflex deficit played an independent and important role in organ-damage in SAD rats with significantly elevated 24-h BPV.