Microtubule biogenesis requires alphabeta tubulin dimers that are generated from alpha and beta tubulin following post-translational modification by several tubulin folding cofactors (TFCs). Here we report the isolation and characterization of Arabidopsis TFCB (AtTFCB). AtTFCB is expressed in all organs of Arabidopsis. The subcellular localization of AtTFCB is mainly cytosolic. AtTFCB-overexpressing cells have fewer microtubules compared with the controls. Multimode fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy reveals a direct physical interaction of AtTFCB with alpha tubulin in living plant cells. We conclude that AtTFCB interacts with alpha tubulin in vivo and its overexpression reduces the number of microtubules.