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Aqueous Propylene Glycol Extracts from Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Standardization, and Extraction Kinetics

Authors
  • Volkov, V. A.1
  • Voronkov, M. V.1
  • Misin, V. M.1
  • Fedorova, E. S.2, 3
  • Rodin, I. A.2
  • Stavrianidi, A. N.2, 3
  • 1 Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia , Moscow (Russia)
  • 2 Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia , Moscow (Russia)
  • 3 Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia , Moscow (Russia)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Inorganic Materials
Publisher
Pleiades Publishing
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2021
Volume
57
Issue
14
Pages
1404–1412
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1134/S0020168521140120
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Substances Analysis
License
Yellow

Abstract

AbstractAqueous propylene glycol extracts from medicinal plants are commonly used as active ingredients in production of medicine and beauty products for external application. In the scientific literature, however, there are almost no data on the extraction effectiveness of water–propylene glycol mixtures and the chemical composition of aqueous propylene glycol extracts from plant raw material, while in product specifications manufacturers indicate parameters of the product that are absolutely unrelated to its biological activity. By the example of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. flowers), using high-performance tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS), we show that its aqueous propylene glycol and aqueous ethanol extracts have similar composition in terms of phenolic compounds, with apigenin and its glucosides (apigenin-7-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-6-O-malonyl-D-glycoside, apigenin-7-acetylglycoside, and acetyl-malonyl-apigenin-7-O-glycoside) being the major constituents of the aqueous propylene glycol extracts. The other detected compounds are 5,4'-dioxy-3,6,7,3'-tetramethoxyflavone, cis and trans forms of 2-O-glucopyranoside of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid, and 7-methoxycumarin. Analytical spectral characteristics of aqueous propylene glycol extracts from a series of medicinal plants that are in high demand in the beauty industry are studied in the UV-visible range. Extracts that display the best protective behavior in the UVA and UVB ranges (Salvia officinalis L. leaves, Matricaria chamomilla L. flowers, and Achillea millefolium L. herb) and antiradical ability (Camellia sinensis L. leaves and Hypericum perforatum L. herb) are identified along with extracts that have the highest flavonoid content (Camellia sinensis L. leaves and Hypericum perforatum L. herb). In extraction from plant raw material of the same batch, the absorbance at 270 nm is related to extraction parameters of flavonoids, antioxidants, and the dry substance by a functional relationship which is very advantageous in rapid analysis for quality control during production processes in order to obtain a product with reproducible characteristics. The formulas for calculation of antioxidant content (as rutin or gallic acid equivalents) from DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assays are derived, and the data for extracts from different plant raw materials are interpreted in comparison with results of other analytical methods. The spectral profiles for German chamomile flower extracts are highly reproducible, regardless of the source of plant raw material, which, in combination with specific features of the spectra profiles for extracts from raw material of different plant species, can be used as a criterion in identification testing. The UV spectrophotometry method proposed here is used to investigate the dynamics of extraction from German chamomile flowers under different extraction conditions (temperature and the ratio between propylene glycol and water in the extraction agent). Optimal extraction from plant material is achieved using aqueous 50% propylene glycol at a temperature of 50°C and for an extraction duration of 4 h.

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