In this work, we introduced an aptamer modified Au nanoparticles doped covalent organic frameworks composite (IBAs-AuNPs/COF) to improve the property of selective enrichment of insulin from serum samples. The Au nanoparticles were immobilized on imine-based COF by in-situ reduction reaction via mussel inspired polydopamine coating, and then sulfhydryl-containing aptamers were bonded to the surface of AuNPs through an Au-S linkage. Due to the excellent adsorption property of COF and specific recognition between insulin and IBAs, the IBAs-AuNPs/COF composites show selective and satisfactory extraction property to insulin in serum samples. Excellent specifity was obtained for insulin in the presence of 50-fold interfering substances including human immunoglobulin, lysozyme and biotin. The concentrations of insulin in the range of 1.0 to 50.0 μg L-1 show good linear relationship (R2 = 0.9917) with limit of detection and limit of quantitation of 0.28 μg L-1 and 0.93 μg L-1, respectively. Then, the IBAs-AuNPs/COF composites were applied to enrich insulin in serum samples followed by analysis with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). After the recovery experiment, the developed method shows good recoveries in range of 91.6%-112.4% with low RSD value (2.4%-9.4%, n = 3) for diabetic and healthy serum samples. The developed IBAs-AuNPs/COF composites propose a new perspective for selective and efficient enrichment of biomarkers in serum samples by functionalized COF. Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.