Genome duplication, after the divergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from Kluyveromyces lactis along evolution, has been proposed as a mechanism of yeast evolution from strict aerobics, such as Candida albicans, to facultatives/fermentatives, such as S. cerevisiae. This feature, together with the preponderance of respiration and the use of the pentose phosphate pathway in glucose utilization, makes K. lactis a model yeast for studies related to carbon and oxygen metabolism. In this work, and based on the knowledge of the sequence of the genome of K. lactis, obtained by the Génolevures project, we have constructed DNA arrays from K. lactis including a limited amount of selected probes. They are related to the aerobiosis-hypoxia adaptation and to the oxidative stress response, and have been used to test changes in mRNA levels in response to hypoxia and oxidative stress generated by H(2)O(2). The study was carried out in both wild-type and rag2 mutant K. lactis strains in which glycolysis is blocked at the phosphoglucose isomerase step. This approach is the first analysis carried out in K. lactis for the majority of the genes selected.