There are often agricultural product quality problems in the production and circulation of agricultural products. Therefore, there are more and more people on the agricultural product supply chain based on the Internet of things. This article mainly introduces the research on the perception data fusion of agricultural product supply chain in the context of the Internet of things. This is a simple research result based on the Internet of things technology platform, which analyzes the current status of the product according to market demand. After analysis and comparison, a sensory data fusion model suitable for the supply chain of agricultural products is obtained, and information technology based on the Internet of things is used to transform and optimize the Internet of things in the circulation of agricultural products. The experimental results of this article show that data fusion technology based on the Internet of things can solve and track 69.45% of the problem of unknown sources of agricultural products, improve the supply efficiency of agricultural products by 43%, reduce the health problems of agricultural products by 31.24%, and reduce the prices of agricultural products by 13–20%. Improving logistics efficiency can save 5 million tons of agricultural products.