The specific features of the catalysis of deep processing (hydrogenation and gasification) of coal and hydroconversion of heavy petroleum feedstock are considered. It has been shown that it is reasonable to use new catalyst forms and catalyst introduction methods for the processing of these raw materials in view of their specific composition and properties (large size of molecules, thermal instability, and the presence of inorganic compounds in the feedstock). In particular, a dispersion of nanosized spherical particles of MoS2 in a liquid hydrocarbon medium is an effective catalyst for the coal hydrogenation and heavy-oil hydrocon-version processes. Gaseous alkali metal hydroxides have been proposed for the gasification of solid fuels. The mechanisms of the formation of catalyst systems and some of their properties are discussed.