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Application of alkali-activated materials for water and wastewater treatment: a review

Authors
  • Luukkonen, Tero1, 2
  • Heponiemi, Anne3
  • Runtti, Hanna3
  • Pesonen, Janne3
  • Yliniemi, Juho2
  • Lassi, Ulla3, 4
  • 1 Kajaani University of Applied Sciences, Kuntokatu 5, Kajaani, 87101, Finland , Kajaani (Finland)
  • 2 University of Oulu, Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, Oulu, 90014, Finland , Oulu (Finland)
  • 3 University of Oulu, Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, Oulu, 90014, Finland , Oulu (Finland)
  • 4 University of Jyvaskyla, Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, Kokkola, 67701, Finland , Kokkola (Finland)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Publication Date
Mar 02, 2019
Volume
18
Issue
2
Pages
271–297
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11157-019-09494-0
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Alkali-activation (or geopolymer) technology has gained a great deal of interest for its potential applications in water and wastewater treatment during the last decade. Alkali-activated materials can be prepared via a relatively simple and low-energy process, most commonly by treating aluminosilicate precursors with concentrated alkali hydroxide and/or silicate solutions at (near) ambient conditions. The resulting materials are, in general, amorphous, have good physical and chemical stability, ion-exchange properties, and a porous structure. Several of the precursors are industrial by-products or other readily available low-cost materials, which further enhances the environmental and economic feasibility. The application areas of alkali-activated materials in water and wastewater treatment are adsorbents/ion-exchangers, photocatalysts, high-pressure membranes, filter media, anti-microbial materials, pH buffers, carrier media in bioreactors, and solidification/stabilization of water treatment residues. The purpose of this review is to present a comprehensive evaluation of the rapidly growing prospects of alkali-activation technology in water and wastewater treatment.

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