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Apolipoprotein A1, the neglected relative of Apolipoprotein E and its potential role in Alzheimer’s disease

Authors
  • Endres, Kristina
Type
Published Article
Journal
Neural Regeneration Research
Publisher
Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Publication Date
Mar 25, 2021
Volume
16
Issue
11
Pages
2141–2148
Identifiers
DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.310669
PMID: 33818485
PMCID: PMC8354123
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review
License
Unknown

Abstract

Lipoproteins are multi-molecule assemblies with the primary function of transportation and processing of lipophilic substances within aqueous bodily fluids (blood, cerebrospinal fluid). Nevertheless, they also exert other physiological functions such as immune regulation. In particular, neurons are both sensitive to uncontrolled responses of the immune system and highly dependent on a controlled and sufficient supply of lipids. For this reason, the role of certain lipoproteins and their protein-component (apolipoproteins, Apo’s) in neurological diseases is perceivable. ApoE, for example, is well-accepted as one of the major risk factors for sporadic Alzheimer’s disease with a protective allele variant (ε2) and a risk-causing allele variant (ε4). ApoA1, the major protein component of high-density lipoproteins, is responsible for transportation of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver. The protein is synthesized in the liver and intestine but also can enter the brain via the choroid plexus and thereby might have an impact on brain lipid homeostasis. This review focuses on the role of ApoA1 in Alzheimer’s disease and discusses whether its role within this neurodegenerative disorder is specific or represents a general neuroprotective mechanism.

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