A good number of psychosocial-, disease-, and disability-related variables influence the adaptation process after the loss of a lower limb. In this case psychological problems, as a result of a failed adaptation process, are common. Of the 75 patients examined who had an amputation of a lower extremity 27% showed increased depression and 25% increased anxiety scores; 18.3% showed higher than normal scores in both categories. Regression analysis showed that in addition to pain reception poor acceptance of the prosthesis is an important predictive factor for the development of psychological disorders and diseases like anxiety and depression. Therefore, measures for psychological diagnostics and care should be initiated soon after the amputation to prevent psychological abnormalities. Here interdisciplinary management and cooperation of the professions involved in the care of the patient are recommended.