The extensive utilization of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has successfully improved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated complications. The incidence of opportunistic infections is decreased by the viral load suppression and the CD4 count promotion. However, metabolic complications, commonly bone demineralization, lipodystrophy, and lactic acidosis, are arising following the adaptation of long-term ART. The events are not drug-specific, but the severity and incidence individually vary depending upon classes of drugs. Such concerning occurrences may lead to discontinuation of current therapy or switching to another regimen with fewer adverse effects. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the common metabolic abnormalities associated with each class of widely used ART in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Electronic databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, SciFinder, and Web of Science were used for the literature search. A better understanding of ART-associated metabolic adverse effects is helpful in various clinical settings so that therapists may optimize treatments in this population.