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Antimicrobial resistance from a one health perspective in Cameroon: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors
  • Mouiche, Mohamed Moctar Mouliom
  • Moffo, Frédéric
  • Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla
  • Okah-Nnane, Ndode Herman
  • Mapiefou, Nabilah Pemi
  • Ndze, Valantine Ngum
  • Wade, Abel
  • Djuikwo-Teukeng, Félicité Flore
  • Toghoua, Dorine Godelive Tseuko
  • Zambou, Henri René
  • Feussom, Jean Marc Kameni
  • LeBreton, Matthew
  • Awah-Ndukum, Julius
Type
Published Article
Journal
BMC Public Health
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Aug 19, 2019
Volume
19
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7450-5
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) is widely acknowledged as a global health problem, yet in many parts of the world its magnitude is not well elucidated. A baseline assessment of the AMR prevalence is a priority for implementation of laboratory-based AMR surveillance This review, focused on a One health approach, aimed at describing the current status of AMR in Cameroon.MethodsPubMed, Google Scholar and African Journals Online databases were searched for articles published in English and French in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Retrieval and screening of article was done using a structured search string with strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. Free-text and grey literature were obtained by contacting the authors directly. The pooled prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each pathogen–antibiotic pairs using random-effects models.ResultAmongst 97 full-text articles reviewed, 66 met the eligibility criteria. The studies originated from the Centre (24; 36.4%), South-West (16; 24.2%), West (13; 19.7%), Littoral (9; 13.6%) and other (4; 6.1%) regions of Cameroon. These studies reported AMR in human (45; 68.2%), animals (9; 13.6%) and the environment (12; 18.2%). Overall, 19 species of bacteria were tested against 48 antibiotics. These organisms were resistant to all classes of antibiotics and showed high levels of multidrug resistance. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus spp were reported in 23, 19 and 18 of the human studies and revealed multidrug resistance (MDR) rates of 47.1% [95% CI (37.3–57.2%)], 51.0% [95% CI (42.0–59.9)] and 45.2% [95% CI (38.0–54.7)], respectively. Salmonella spp was reported in 6 of the animal studies and showed a MDR rate of 46.2% [95% CI (39.2–53.5%)] while Staphylococcus spp in 8 of environment studies showed MDR rate of 67.1% [95% CI (55.2–77.2%)].ConclusionThis review shows that resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics in Cameroon is high. The findings emphasize the urgent need to address gaps in the standardization of AMR diagnostics, reporting and use of available information to optimize treatment guidelines for the arsenal of antibiotics. Effective AMR surveillance through continued data sharing, large-scale collaboration, and coordination of all stakeholders is essential to understand and manage the AMR national burden.

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